Puerto Rico - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Coordinates: 1. 8.
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House Delegate. Resident Commissioner. Pedro Pierluisi (NPP)Legislature. Legislative Assembly . It has, for example, been applied to both states and territories.
When used in connection with areas under U. S. It is an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory no longer observes. Puerto Rico's rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world.
Originally populated by the aboriginal. Ta. During the four centuries of Spanish rule, the island's ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes were transformed, as the island was settled overwhelmingly by Spanish settlers, primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia, continuing right up until the end of the 1. Catholic and markedly Hispanic territory in terms of culture and language. In 1. 89. 8, following the Spanish. The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning . Eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city.
The name was finally changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by F. Unlike some other indigenous cultures in the New World (Aztec and Inca) whose people left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, the indigenous population of Puerto Rico left scant artifacts and evidence.
The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray . Some scholars suggest that their settlement dates back 4. The Arcaico and Igneri co- existed on the island between the 4th and 1.
Between the 7th and 1. Ta. By approximately 1. AD, it had become dominant. At the time of Columbus' arrival, an estimated 3. Ta. They called it Boriken, meaning . They subsisted by hunting and fishing, done generally by men, as well as by the women's gathering and processing of indigenous cassava root and fruit.
This lasted until Columbus arrived in 1. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of the Catholic saint, John the Baptist. He later served as the first governor of the island.
Despite the Laws of Burgos of 1. Ta. The population suffered extremely high fatalities from epidemics of European infectious diseases. Other nearby islands, like Cuba, Saint- Domingue, and Guadeloupe, attracted more of the slave trade than Puerto Rico, probably because of greater agricultural interests in those islands, on which colonists had developed large sugar plantations and had the capital to invest in the Atlantic slave trade. With no significant industries or large- scale agricultural production as yet, enslaved and free communities lodged around the few littoral settlements, particularly around San Juan, also forming lasting Afro- creole communities. Meanwhile, in the island's interior, there developed a mixed and independent peasantry that relied on a subsistence economy. This mostly unsupervised population supplied villages and settlements with foodstuffs and, in relative isolation, set the pattern for what later would be known as the Puerto Rican J. By the end of the 1.
Century, the Spanish Empire was diminishing and, in the face of increasing raids from European competitors, the colonial administration throughout the Americas fell into a . San Juan served as an important port- of- call for ships driven across the Atlantic by its powerful trade winds. West Indies convoys linked Spain to the island, sailing between C. The colony's seat of government was on the forested Islet of San Juan and for a time became one of the most heavily fortified settlements in the Spanish Caribbean earning the name of the . Learning from Francis Drake's previous failures here, he circumvented the cannons of the castle of San Felipe del Morro and quickly brought his 1. San Juan Bay. He then occupied the port and attacked the city while the population hurried for shelter behind the Morro's moat and high battlements. Historians consider this event the worst attack on San Juan.
Though the Dutch set the village on fire, they failed to conquer the Morro, and its batteries pounded their troops and ships until Hendricksz deemed the cause lost. Hendricksz's expedition eventually helped propel a fortification frenzy. Constructions of defenses for the San Crist.
Urban planning responded to the needs of keeping the colony in Spanish hands. Late colonial period. With the advent of the lively Bourbon Dynasty in Spain in the 1. Puerto Rico began a gradual shift to more imperial attention. More roads began connecting previously isolated inland settlements to coastal cities, and coastal settlements like Arecibo, Mayaguez, and Ponce began acquiring importance of their own, separate from San Juan. By the end of the 1. Mercantilist system, which turned each colony solely toward the European metropole and limited contact with other nations.
Slavers, which had made but few stops on the island before, began selling more enslaved Africans to growing sugar and coffee plantations. The increasing number of Atlantic wars in which the Caribbean islands played major roles, like the War of Jenkins' Ear, the Seven Years' War and the Atlantic Revolutions, ensured Puerto Rico's growing esteem in Madrid's eyes. By the time independence movements in the larger Spanish colonies gained success, new waves of loyal creole immigrants began to arrive in Puerto Rico, helping to tilt the island's political balance toward the Crown. In 1. 80. 9, to secure its political bond with the island and in the midst of the European Peninsular War, the Supreme Central Junta based in C. This gave the island residents the right to elect representatives to the recently convened Spanish parliament (C. These parliamentary and constitutional reforms were in force from 1. They were twice reversed during the restoration of the traditional monarchy by Ferdinand VII.
Immigration and commercial trade reforms in the 1. European population and economy and expanded the Spanish cultural and social imprint on the local character of the island.
Minor slave revolts had occurred on the island throughout the years, with the revolt planned and organized by Marcos Xiorro in 1. Even though the conspiracy was unsuccessful, Xiorro achieved legendary status and is part of Puerto Rico's folklore. The movement was largely inspired by the ideals of Sim.
Among the influential members of this movement were Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernab. The movement was discovered, and Governor Miguel de la Torre had its members imprisoned or exiled. To increase its hold on its last two New World colonies, the Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1. Spaniards, settled on the island in the period up until the American conquest. Printed in three languages. Hundreds of non Spanish families, mainly from Corsica, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy and Scotland, also immigrated to the island. Puerto Rico today still receives Spanish and European immigration.
It began in the rural town of Lares, but was subdued when rebels moved to the neighboring town of San Sebasti. Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico in 1.
Many joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee, founded on December 8, 1. Puerto Rican independence. In 1. 89. 7, Antonio Mattei Lluberas and the local leaders of the independence movement in Yauco organized another uprising, which became known as the Intentona de Yauco. They raised what they called the Puerto Rican flag, which was adopted as the national flag. The local conservative political factions opposed independence. Rumors of the planned event spread to the local Spanish authorities who acted swiftly and put an end to what would be the last major uprising in the island to Spanish colonial rule. This bilaterally agreed- upon charter maintained a governor appointed by the King of Spain .
In February, Governor- General Manuel Mac. General elections were held in March and the new government began to function on July 1. Part of his strategy called for the acquisition of colonies in the Caribbean, which would serve as coaling and naval stations. They would serve as strategic points of defense with the construction of a canal through the Isthmus of Panama, to allow easier passage of ships between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Seward, the former Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses Grant, had also stressed the importance of building a canal in Honduras, Nicaragua or Panama.
He suggested that the United States annex the Dominican Republic and purchase Puerto Rico and Cuba. Senate did not approve his annexation proposal, and Spain rejected the U.
S. Office of Naval Intelligence had prepared a plan that included military operations in Puerto Rican waters. Except for one 1.
Isle of Pines (later renamed as Isla de la Juventud), a recommendation dropped in later planning, plans developed for attacks on Spanish territories were intended as support operations against Spain's forces in and around Cuba. As an outcome of the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with the Philippines and Guam, then under Spanish sovereignty, to the U. S. Spain relinquished sovereignty over Cuba, but did not cede it to the U. S. The Foraker Act of 1. Puerto Rico a certain amount of civilian popular government, including a popularly elected House of Representatives. The upper house and governor were appointed by the United States. At the time, the US did not have popular election of senators.
Until passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1. US senators were elected by their respective state legislatures.